The Badges tab lists brief descriptions on what is required to win bronze, silver and gold badges. This brief description is sometimes difficult to understand and can even be misleading. For example, the Research Assistant description tells us that it is awarded to users who have edited 50 tag wikis. This does not, however, clearly specify that the edits do not include 'excerpts'. I am all for editing tag wikis, tag excerpts, and making the site better allround, but when you are anticipating receiving a badge and it never comes, it is a bit of a kick in the shins.
To prevent disappointment, I am posing this question with the purpose of answering it myself, so that I know where to look for more information on badges and don't need to go hunting for the link anymore. Anyone who can contribute more helpful information on badges is welcome!
Now... Let's have some fun and earn some badges :D